WHAT IS MAYA?

What is maya?

Below is a story to illustrate just that:

Once Narada the celestial sage and ardent devotee of Lord Vishnu asked him,

“Lord, what is maya?”

Lord Vishnu said, “I’ll explain to you what maya is, but first fetch me some water as I am really thirsty.”

At a distance there was a village and Narada left at once. As he collected water from the river, he saw a beautiful woman. Narada felt attracted to her and asked the bashful girl to marry him.

After receiving her father’s blessing the two got married. Over time they had children and Narada inherited his father-in-laws property, land, cattle etc. Narada seemed very happy in his family life and they happily continued to live their life.

One day there was a terrible rainstorm. It wouldn’t stop pouring and the river overflowed its banks flooding the village. Homes and people were swept away. In an effort to escape, Narada held on to his wife with one hand and his older son with another. He placed his younger child over his shoulders. But the current proved to be too strong and swept away one of his children. In an attempt to save one child, he lost his grasp over his wife and second child. As they all got carried away by the flood, out of desperation he wailed and lamented, “Lord help me!”

All of a sudden he found himself scooped up and a gentle voice behind him say,

” Child, Where is my water? You’ve been gone for half an hour.”

Narada was confused. Where was his village? His wife? His children? Half an hour? It had been 12 years.

“You have always had theoretical knowledge of maya, but never really experienced it” said Lord Vishnu. Despite that knowledge you got pulled into this material world. Such is the power of maya.  The moment you experienced it you got caught up in it. It became your reality.”

Living in this world of maya is akin to being in a dream. Sometimes we wake up from a scary dream that felt very real but the moment we awake from it, we are extremely relieved as we realize it was only a dream.

Maya or illusion is similar to that. The world we live in is maya but feels very real to us because of the play of the gunas (qualities) of satva, rajas and tamas. When the mind gets dragged by the sense organs into the material world, there is an imbalance created in the three gunas. As the mind runs outwards, it wanders farther and farther away from its divine nature and  gets caught up in the play of life.

One wakes up from this maya when they turn their mind inwards through control of the mind (chittasamyam) and practice of yoga. As the mind becomes free from agitation, the three gunas enter into a state of perfect balance and the being comes to realize their divinity.  Everything at once becomes clear. Reality reveals itself and as it does, the world of maya that we believe to be our reality blurs away into the background and one sees it for what it truly is-unreal; that we are all nothing but hamsters in a wheel, believing that we are actually getting somewhere but really never getting anywhere.

If the  mind is agitated because of the constant assault by emotions, this world of maya will continue to feel real. One continues to experience momentary pleasure, interrupted by long phases of sorrow and suffering.

If the mind is free from agitation, the being will experience divine bliss and be free from worldly sorrows and suffering even while living in it.

Mind is the root cause of suffering for one who is controlled by it. But mind is also the liberator for one who can control it.

Sure-fire Antidote For Vertigo

Two weeks ago I got exposed to some cold weather and also made the mistake of consuming cold food which just doesn’t suit me. (If I bite into a cold sandwich I get congested within minutes.)

My head felt completely jammed and heavy and I ended up with vertigo. Usually an episode leaves me bedridden  for 24 hours or so but this recent episode was different. It lasted about 2 weeks and I was mobile but had to be careful not to make any sudden movements, look up or down or lie down on either side.  So while it left me feeling  spaced out and disoriented ,  it didn’t interfere with my travel plans and other social obligations and familial responsibilities during the Christmas season. I don’t have vertigo often, maybe once every 5 years and I know my triggers ( strong smells like those in cleaning solutions  bleach, alcohol etc and exposure to cold winds and consumption of too much cold food).

When I finally got time to take care of myself I tried different natural remedies like performing mudra for vertigo and drinking and eating herbs, food and drinks (cloves, ginger, nutmeg etc) that are inherently as well as temperature warm/hot. My symptoms did improve but very slowly and not completely, so I decided to go with the sesame oil treatment which I should have done sooner, but kept putting off. With my little finger I  coated the inside of my ears with sesame oil as far as it could reach into both my ears. I also coated my nostrils making sure to breathe in deeply few times and gave myself a facial lymphatic drainage massage with it too. This helps clear the sinus congestion really fast.  (My husband once had a really bad cold which refused to leave. I convinced him to allow me to give him the sesame oil lymphatic drainage massage followed by hot towel compresses and after just one treatment he was completely fine.) Following just two applications and massages over a 24 hour period, there was 100% improvement in my vertigo. I also ate 10 almonds in the morning and 10 at night. Almonds help counter excess kapha and vata which cause vertigo.

Using organic cold pressed sesame oil is recommended, but I used what I had in my pantry which was the dark sesame oil used in Chinese recipes 🙂

paranthasesame

yachnayoga.wordpress.com

Sesame oil is extremely hot in nature and is hailed for its many benefits in Ayurveda. I resumed including them in my daily diet at least for the rest of winter. Toasting  white sesame seeds until they release oil and sprinkling a teaspoon them on toast, bagels vegetable etc or adding them when baking or making rotis, paranthas etc are a great way to include them in your diet.  You can learn more about the benefits of sesame seed here.

Too much Tejas

Question from one of the readers: Whenever I do tratak for some days i get acne, mouth ulcer and dry lips what is the reason for this symptoms?

Ghee

Ghee in moderation helps increase ojas

Trataka increases tejas or heat in the body. You need to make sure you drink plenty of water and also avoid foods in your diet that increases tejas. So avoid sour and hot spices, chili peppers, sesame, meat, alcohol, onion, garlic, honey, chai, coffee or any other foods, herbs etc that increase heat in body. Consume saunf, mishri, fresh coconut, coconut oil, ghee, dates, rice, wheat, sweet potato, kheer etc in moderation to increase ojas. Eat simple foods that have a watery gravy instead of dry sabzi. soak 10 almonds at night and next day peel and have them with some milk. Also soak sabza seeds in water till they become gooey then add them to sherbets, milk shakes, puddings, desserts etc

Chakra Meditation

My fellow blogger Eklavya is happy to share one of his  comprehensive posts on Chakra Meditation with us.

You can access more posts on meditation by visiting his website at http://www.meditationiseasy.com/

Link to chakra meditation http://meditationiseasy.com/blog/meditation-techniques/chakra-meditation

or read here

Chakra Meditation : A Definitive Guide for Absolute Beginners

Chakra Meditation is quickly gaining ground as one of the most popular forms of meditation. In this post, I am going to explain Chakra Meditation in a beginner’s friendly language covering all the relevant aspects of this topic.  In this article, I shall try to explain in details the concept of Chakras, Kundalini  and the simplest method to utilize them in your meditation practice.

Table of Contents :

What is Chakra Meditation
Understanding the Chakras
Chakras in Indian & Tibetan perspective
The Nadis : Channels that passes through Chakra
The Seven Chakras of Human Body- Explained in detail
The Concept of Kundalini
The Big Picture : Applying the concepts of Chakra and Kundalini in your life
Risk Involved (Don’t play with the serpent)
What if you can’t awaken it due to risk involved?
The safest path : Mantra
Technique of Chakra Meditation
Correct Pronunciation of Seed Mantras
Conclusion

What is Chakra Meditation

Before trying any kind of meditation using Chakras, we need to have a clear understanding of  Chakras. Once you understand this,  doing the  Chakra meditation will be easy and effortless. While I will be explaining the entire process of Chakra Meditation in the later part of this article,  for all of you who are curious, it would be suffice to say that Chakra meditation is quite similar to Mantra Meditation that I explained here. However, before learning the technique of Chakra Meditation, we need to have a basic understanding of what exactly are the Chakras.

Understanding the Chakras

The word chakra is a Sanskrit word which is derived from the verb car (“to move”). There are several literal meanings of chakra:

* wheel
* circle
* Center

Besides the literal meaning, there are also some esoteric meanings:

* The Chakra denotes the “wheel of becoming” (bhavacakra), or “round of existence” (samsara), which is the phenomenal cosmos.

* The word Chakra is used to refer to a circle of initiates in a Tantric ritual.

* A Chakra is a diagram used to determine the right kind of mantra for a particular situation or student.

* The word Chakra refers to the psychoenergetic vortices forming the major “organs” of the body composed of life energy (prana). These esoteric structures are also often referred to and graphically depicted as “lotuses” (padma, kamala).

As per the ancient Hindu belief, Chakras are energy centers of circular shape present inside our body. While there has been some disputes on the number of Chakras, in most of the belief systems there are seven chakras. These Chakras are believed to be situated inside our bodies at a  particular distance from each other, the lowest being at the base of the spine and the topmost between the center of our skull. The five lower chakras are believed to be associated with one of the 5 basic elements that constitute this universe which are Earth (prithivi), Water (apas/jala), Fire (tejas/agni), Air (vayu) and Ether/Space (akasha). The remaining two higher chakras i.e. Aagya (Third Eye) Chakra and Sahasrara (Crown) Chakra do not contain any specific element. The Third Eye Chakra is believed to contain Maha Tatva- the supreme element which is the source of all other elements. The Crown Chakra, on the other hand, is considered beyond all elements.

Here is a symbolic representation of Seven Chakras in our bodies.

 

Chakra Meditation -Image of 7 Chakras in Human Body

Chakras in Indian & Tibetan perspective

Chakras as per Buddhism(Tibet)

Chakras are seven energy points in human body and denote various characteristics of our spiritual development in this world. It is believed that right from our journey from the physical world to the highest position in spiritual word, a person passes through seven bodies. Every chakra in our body denotes one such body. Read more : The mystery of the seven bodies

The original models of the chakras from the Brahma and Yogatattva Upanishadswere adapted in Tibetan Buddhism as Vajrayana theory and as the Tantric Shakta theory. Vajrayana Buddhism aims to assist the student in achieving full enlightenment or Buddhahood in  just a single lifetime. Using techniques based on ancient scriptures known as the Tantras, the practitioner tries to identify with and practice the enlightened ways of the Buddha. Tantric techniques include the repetition of mantras, the use of breath control, healing mudras (or hand positions) and the use of mandalas (circular symbols of the universe) for meditation. In the Tibetan Buddhist tradition only five chakras are identified.

Chakras as per  Shaktism (India)

Shaktism arose as an organized sect in India in the 5th century AD, and it is this sect’s interpretation of the chakras that has most influenced the Western understanding of them. Shaktism describes the seven major chakras that we recognize today. In Shakta theory the chakras are viewed as centers of pure consciousness and are focal points for meditation. Shakta theory firmly established symbolic associations and correspondences for each chakra: its element, visual symbol, mantra sound, deity, color and animal. The Shakta way also teaches us about kundalini energy: the energy that was unleashed during the creation of the world; Tantric practice focuses our attention on awakening this energy at the base of the spine for a specific purpose.

The Nadis : Channels that passes through Chakra

The Tantric texts refer to the nadis (or  channels) of vital life-force (or prana), which passes throughout the body and link with the chakras. According to Shakta theory, the seven chakras are strung along the primary nadi in the body-the Sushumna Nadi-like pearls or jewels. It is also believed that there are two secondary nadis on either side of the sushumna: Ida on the left (containing descending life-force or vitality); and Pingala on the right (containing ascending vitality). Their aim is to direct the energy of each secondary nadi into the central nadi, where it then ascends through each chakra in turn. When kundalini energy reaches the highest chakra (the Crown Chakra), the yogi (or master of yoga who has achieved a high level of spiritual insight) achieves a state of oneness with God.

Let us learn each of these chakras and bodies in some details :

The Seven Chakras of Human Body: Explained in Details

First Chakra – Muladhara (Root)

Chakra Meditation : Image of Muladhara Chakra

Literal Meaning: “root-foundation wheel”
Location: Base of the Spine (Perineum area)
Color: Red
No. of Petals : 4
Element: Prithivi (Earth)
Mantra: LAM

The first chakra is the root chakra, called Muladhara in Sanskrit. The root chakra is believed to be located at the base of the spine at the tailbone in back, and the pubic bone in front which primarily consist of Perineum area.  The root chakra is closely related to one’s contact with the Mother Earth, improving our ability to be grounded into the earth plane. Muladhara is also the center of manifestation. When you are trying to achieve something in the material world, business or possessions, the energy to succeed is supposed to come from the first chakra. If this base chakra is blocked, an individual may feel fearful, anxious, insecure and frustrated.

A man’s sexual organs are located primarily in his first chakra, so male sexual energy is usually experienced primarily as physical. A women’s sexual organs are primarily in her second chakra, so female sexual energy is usually experienced primarily as emotional. Both chakras are associated with sexual energy.

Second Chakra – Belly (Sacral)/ Swadhisthana

Chakra Meditation : Image of Swadishtan (Sacral) Chakra

Literal Meaning: “Wheel of the self-base”
Location: Two inches below the navel (area of Clitoris in women/ Base of Penis in men)
Color: Vermilion, white
No. of Petals : 6
Element: Apas (Water)
Mantra: VAM

The next chakra or second chakra is the Svadhisthana – often referred to as the sacral. It is located two inches below the navel around area of Clitoris in women/ Base of Penis in men). This chakra is believed to hold the basic needs for sexuality, creativity, intuition, and self-worth. It also denotes friendliness, creativity, and emotions. It is also believed to govern a person’s  sense of self-worth, his/her confidence in his/her own creativity, and his/her ability to relate to others in a friendly way.

Third Chakra – Solar Plexus ( Manipura)

Chakra Meditation : Image of Manipura (Solar Plexus) Chakra

Literal Meaning: “Wheel of the jeweled city”
Location: Navel
Color: Dark grey, red, blue (also gold)
No. of Petals : 10
Element: Tejas (Fire)
Mantra: RAM

The third chakra is called Manipura (in Sanskrit) – also referred to as the Solar Plexus Chakra in English. It is located in the navel area. The Manipura chakra is considered as the center of personal power, the place of ego, of passions, impulses, anger and strength. It is also considered the center for astral travel and astral influences, receptivity of spirit guides and for psychic development. When the Third Chakra is out of balance you may lack confidence, be confused, worry about what others think, feel that others are controlling your life, and may be depressed.

Fourth Chakra – Heart (Anahata)

Chakra Meditation : Image of Anahata (Heart) Chakra

Literal Meaning: “Wheel of the unstruck sound”
Location: Chest (center of two breasts)
Color: Deep red, gold, smoke
No. of Petals : 12
Element: Prana (Air)
Mantra: YAM

The fourth chakra is the Heart (Anahata) chakra.It is located in the central of the spine near the heart, with its exact location between the center of two breasts. This Chakra is the center for love, compassion and spirituality. It directs one’s ability to love themselves and others, to give and to receive love. This is also the chakra connecting body and mind with spirit. When this chakra is out of balance you may feel sorry for yourself, paranoid, indecisive, afraid of letting go, afraid of getting hurt, or unworthy of love.

Fifth Chakra – Vishuddhi Chakra (Throat)

Chakra Meditation : Image of Vishuddhi (Throat) Chakra

Literal Meaning: “Pure wheel”
Location: Throat
Color: Smoky purple, Blue, White
No. of Petals : 16
Element: Akasha (Space)
Mantra: HAM

The fifth chakra is the Throat Chakra also known as Vishuddhi Chakra in Sanskrit. It is located at the throat and is the center of communication, sounds, and expression of creativity via thought , speech, and writing. The possibility for change, transformation and healing in a person are located here. When this chakra is out of balance you may want to hold back, feel timid, be quiet, feel weak, or can’t express your thoughts.

Sixth Chakra – Third Eye (Ajna or Aagya Chakra)

Chakra Meditation : Image of Aagya (Third Eye) Chakra

Literal Meaning: “Command wheel”
Location: Forehead ( Between eyebrows)
Color: White
No. of Petals : 2
Element: Manas (Mind)
Mantra: OM

The sixth chakra is referred to as the Third Eye Chakra. In Sanskrit it is known as Aagya Chakra i,e. Command wheel. It is located above the area of physical eyes on the center of the forehead. This is the center for psychic ability, higher intuition, the energies of spirit and light. It also assists in the purification of negative tendencies and in the elimination of selfish attitudes. Through the power of the sixth chakra, one can receive guidance, channel, and tune into your Higher Self. When this chakra is not balanced you may feel non-assertive, afraid of success, or go the opposite way and be egotistical. Please also read Third Eye Meditation.

Seventh Chakra – Crown (Sahasrara)

Chakra Meditation : Image of Sahasrara (Crown) Chakra

Literal Meaning: “Thousand-petaled Lotus”
Location: Above head, facing down
Color: White
No. of Petals : 1,000

The seventh chakra is referred to as the Crown.

It is the upper terminal point of the central channel (sushumna-nadi) and the final destination for the awakened serpent-power (kundalini-shakti). When the kundalini, the force of Devi, reaches this center, this signals the merging of Shiva and Shakti.

It is the center of spirituality, enlightenment, dynamic thought and energy. It allows for the inward flow of wisdom, and brings the gift of cosmic consciousness. This is also the center of connectedness with the Goddess (God), the place where life animates the physical body. The silver cord that connects the aura bodies extends from the crown. The soul comes into the body through the crown at birth and leaves from the crown at death. When this chakra is unbalanced there may be a constant sense of frustration, no spark of joy, and destructive feelings. Illnesses may include migraine headaches and depression. Balanced energy in this chakra may include the ability to open up to the Divine and total access to the unconscious and subconscious.

The Concept of Kundalini

The topic of Chakras will be incomplete if the concept of Kundalini is not described here. The Chakras are essentially the milestones through which the kundalini travels to reach at the highest abode in the 7th Chakra.

Chakra Meditation : Image of Kundalini as it arises in Chakra Meditation

`Kundalini” literally means coiling, like a snake. The word kundalini comes from the Sanskrit word kundal, which means a ‘spiral’ or ‘coil.’ In Yoga, Kundalini Shakti means the ‘coiled power.’ It is compared to a serpent that lies coiled while resting or sleeping. It essentially denotes a primal life force that animates all living entities and is the source of all creative energy. As the kundalini moves upwards in the spine, it results in an upward shift in our consciousness. There are three nadis (energy channel) in the body known as Ida, Pingala and Sushumna. When awakens the kundalini is believed to travel from Sushumna Nadi through various chakras.

In Hindu scriptures, Kundalini is also described as the feminine power – the Shakti- at the base of the spine, which travels up the spine to unite with the masculine power, her consort, Lord Shiva (Shakta), in the seventh chakra, Sahasrara.

Symbolism apart, Kundalini power has found a mention in almost all the spiritual traditions of the world in some way or other ( Read more here ) . While there has been a number of spiritual paths like Vipassana, Zen etc which gave no specific stress upon kundalini, there are a number of paths wherein the spiritual progress of a person runs parallel with his level of Kundalini awakeness.

Further, all the spiritual paths which give emphasis to Kundalini awakening can also be divided into two major groups. The first group is consist of the practitioners of Mantra Yoga, Hatha Yoga, Laya Yoga or Raja Yoga etc wherein the kundalini is awakened through the effort of the individual (often under the guidance of a guru or master). The second group is of those representing Sahaja Yoga, Kundalini Yoga or Siddha Mahayoga wherein the kundalini is spontaneously awakened by the grace of the Siddha guru in a process which is called ‘Shaktipat’. In this tradition, the Siddha Guru/Master conveys shaktipat initiation to the disciple by means of touch, word or intention which results in an instant awakening of  kundalini. Both of these paths of Kundalini awakening have their advantages and disadvantages.

The first path of individual effort is considered the difficult path as the person has to work hard on his practice and the  progress is often very slow. However, as everything depends upon the individual effort, the consistent efforts results in permanent  progress and the Sadhak (the person who tread the path) becomes supreme confidence in his efforts. Further, slow awakening of kundalini allows proper control over the excess energy it produces and the chance of damage or of negative effects are minimized. However, even in the individual approach, the guidance of a guru/master is a must. In the absence of an experienced person to guide the Sadhak, he may face a sudden uprising of the Kundalini which will be difficult to control.

One such real life incident happened in the winter of 1937 when an Indian man by the name Gopi Krishna experienced a sudden and forceful awakening of kundalini in the state of deep meditation in his room at Jammu, India. His life after the Kundalini awakening was both blessed by ecstatic bliss and tormented by physical and mental discomfort. Here is the description of his experience in his own words taken from his autobiography ‘Living With the Kundalini’

“The illumination grew brighter and brighter, the roaring louder, I experienced a rocking sensation and then felt myself slipping out of my body, entirely enveloped in a halo of light…I felt the point of consciousness that was myself growing wider, surrounded by waves of light…I was now all consciousness, without any outline, without any idea of a corporeal appendage, without any feeling or sensation coming from the senses, immersed in a sea of light simultaneously conscious and aware of every point, spread out, as it were, in all directions without any barrier or material obstruction…bathed in light and in a state of exaltation and happiness impossible to describe.”

Another disadvantage of individual effort in Kundalini Awakening is the fact that the Sadhak who succeed in this endeavor may become egoist due to his achievement. The awakening of Kundalini and its control is considered as one of the most difficult feat to achieve. As such, those who have some worldly desires in them, will feel elated and somewhat special on achieving this feat. From spiritual point of view, this egoism hinders the progress of the Sadhak.

The second path of Kundalini awakening through Shaktipat also has its merits and demerit. On the one hand, it is a short path where the blessing of a Guru is enough to initiate the disciple and awakening his Kundalini. On the other hand, this sudden rise in consciousness may prove difficult to the unprepared Sadhaks. Further, the Sadhak becomes too much dependent on his Guru and live his life depending upon the borrowed experience of his Guru’s grace. An independent awakening of an individual sadhak through is own  effort is thus missing in this second method.

The Big Picture : How you can utilize the concepts of Chakra and Kundalini in your daily life ?

What I have discussed in the preceding paras is a brief outline of the concept of Chakras and Kundalini as they exist in various belief systems. However, this will be of no value if I don’t tell you the way to adopt these concept in your daily meditation practice. As already stated in the beginning of this article, this guide is for absolute beginners who are living a busy urban life and don’t have time to fully devote themselves to the spiritual path – but still they want to adopt the practice of meditation in their life for inner peace and personal growth.

Risk Involved (Don’t play with the serpent)

Since we are discussing the concept of Kundalini Awakening, I want to clarify one thing loud and clear. The Kundalini is not something to play with. Never, never try to play with the Kundalini. Kundalini Awakening is a high risk subject which may wreak havoc on the subject if done in haste without preparation.

Please read this advice of Swami Yatiswarananda in his book ‘Meditation and spiritual Life’  about the danger of Kundalini :

Those who practise spiritual disciplines without physical and mental purity are not only wasting their energy from the spiritual point of view, but are also running the risk of gathering too much energy, which, flowing through the worldly channels, might intensify their worldly life, including sex life, and thus harm them greatly.

Sometimes some take it seriously, and try to awaken the kundalini without undergoing the purification of mind. The practice of concentration without sufficient purity is dangerous. If the energy that is increased through concentration cannot  move along the spiritual channel, it may express itself outwardly in the form of violent passions in an extrovert, harming him as well as others. In the introvert the gathered-up energy may not find an outward expression. In that case it may form an awful whirlpool in the individual, shattering his nerves and mind and making him a complete wreck.

In some cases, as the mind is stirred through meditation, all the good and evil things lying hidden in it may come to the surface with tremendous force and bring about a physical and mental collapse. Those impure souls who want to play with the ‘serpent’ always come to grief. In some others again, the stored-up energy may manifest itself as cheap psychic powers such as clairvoyance, thought-reading, and such powers which make those persons egoistic and spiritually bankrupt. In some cases again, there may be a partial awakening of the latent power. The spiritual power may rise to a higher center but may fall down with disastrous results, stimulating worldly desires.

One thing which I want to make clear is that when you are doing anything with the Chakra, you are actually tinkering with the Kundalini – the dormant energy lying at the base of your spine. Without the able guidance of a Guru, the awakening of the Kundalini can have serious negative consequence as the sudden burst of energy, if not controlled properly, can harm the Sadhak. The part of the consciousness which normally remains  hidden in the subconscious mind become available after awakening of the Kundalini. The untrained extrovert may waste the excess of energy on on sex and violence whereas the untrained introvert can stuck themselves in a whirlwind of cyclone of the void. (Read more about this concept here and here )

What if you can’t awaken it due to risk involved?

Again the words of Swami Yatiswarananda will give you solace and show a way :

The description of the rise of the Kundalini appears to be simple and easy enough. But actually, it is all very, very difficult. Out of a thousand people who struggle for it, only one may get the awakening. But there is no need to get discouraged. From the way most people live we find that it is only good that in their case the Kundalini awakens very slowly or does not awaken at all. Most people are not at all ready for the rise. They can not face the tremendous reaction that it produces. In fact, in the beginning of one’s spiritual life, it is better to  forget all about Kundalini and think only about God. Let the love for your Ista Devata (term denoting a worshipper’s favourite deity within Hinduism. Read more here)  absorb all your attention and energies. Leave the Kundalini to Him. He will look after your spiritual welfare. God will grant you awakening at the right time.

As I have repeatedly said, it is better to follow the path of synthesis – a combination of Karma, Gyana (Knowledge) and Bhakti (Devotion). Let selfless work go hand in hand with your meditation. That purifies and strengthens the mind, Practice self-analysis and make the mind detached and calm. And then japa (the repetition of the Mantra) does the rest. When properly done, japa creates an inner harmony which gradually flows along the susumna making it active.

In view of the risk involved, we need to adopt a path which uses the concept of Chakra & Kundalini in its meditation practice but does not involve the high risk mentioned above.

The safest path : Mantra

Whatever be our spiritual path, be it Hindu’s, Buddhists, Christians or Sufi’s, the three stages we all have to pass through are purification, meditation and experience of the divine Reality or Godhead. Here arises the question : how are we to begin meditation with a view to awakening our spiritual consciousness? One disciple once asked the spiritual teacher, Swami Brahmananda,’ Sir, how can the Kundalini, the latent spiritual consciousness, be awakened?

This is what Swami replied:

“According to some there are special exercises by which the kundalini can be awakened, but I believe it can best be awakened by the practice of japa and meditation. The practice of japa is specially suited to this present age; and there is no spiritual practice easier than this, but meditation must accompany the repetition of the mantra.”

So what is the path. It is very simple, very powerful yet relatively very safe. Simply speaking it is Mantra Meditation.

As explained above in the section of individual 7 Chakras, the lower 5 chakras have 5 elements attached with them. These 5 elements have their respective seed (Bija) Mantras. We use these seed mantras to balance the elements in the respective Chakras. For the two higher Chakras ( Aagya/Third Eye & Sahsrar /Crown) the divine Mantra ‘OM’ is used.

So, in short, the Chakra Meditation, in its safest form, is the repetition of Bija Mantras related to the respective elements of 5 lower Chakras  which in turn helps in balancing the Chakras.

Technique of Chakra Meditation :

If you ask me to define the exact method of doing Chakra Meditation, it will be like this :-

(1) Sit in the lotus pose. Take some deep breaths.

(2)  We will be focusing on various Chakras of our body one by one, starting from the lowermost Muladhara to the uppermost Sahsrara. While we focus on the Chakra, we will recite the Seed Mantra associated with its elements. It will go like this:

a)      Focus your attention on the place where Muladhara the base Chakra (representing the Earth element) is located in your body. Now repeat thrice : LAM…. LAM … LAM ….

b)      Now bring your attention on the place where Swadhishtan the Sacral Chakra (representing the Water element) is located in your body. Now repeat thrice : VAM …. VAM … VAM ….

c)       Now bring your attention on the place where Manipura, the Solar Plexus Chakra (representing the Fire element), is located in your body. Now repeat thrice : RAM …. RAM … RAM ….

d)      Now bring your attention on the place where Anahata, the Heart Chakra (representing the Air element), is located in your body. Now repeat thrice : YAM …. YAM … YAM ….

e)      Now bring your attention on the place where Vishuddha, the Throat Chakra (representing the Akasha/Space element), is located in your body. Now repeat thrice : HAM …. HAM … HAM ….

f)       Now bring your attention on the place where Aagya, the Third Eye Chakra (representing the Supreme element comprising all the basic elements), is located in your body. Now repeat thrice : AUM …. AUM … AUM ….

g)      Now bring your attention on the place where Sahasrara, the Crown Chakra (Considered to be beyond all elements), is located in your body. Now repeat thrice : AUM …. AUM … AUM ….

(3)   Once you complete the above steps, you will be having two options: (i) Either repeat the above cycle by following all the seven steps mentioned above or (ii) Repeat any of your chosen Mantra of your liking (as explained in the Mantra section here).

I would advise you not to do the first option in excess. Instead please follow a combination of the 3 steps as below:

Suppose you have chosen the Mantra ‘OM Namah Shivay’ for repetition. Therefore, do the combination like this:-

(3.1)  Recite the cycle of 7 seed Mantras as explained above. Then recite the Mantra ‘Om Namah Shivay’ three times.

(3.2)  Repeat the above (i.e. one cycle of 7 seed mantras and 1 main mantra) two times more.

(3.3) Now stop the cycle of 7 seed mantra and only recite the main Mantra (Om Namah Shivay in this case) continuously for 5-10 minutes.

This, in nutshell, is the entire technique of Chakra Meditation.

Another Method of Chakra Meditation :

Another method of Chakra Meditation which is equally good but adopt a slight different approach is this:-

Instead of focusing on the seven chakras one by one and repeating their Seed Mantras one by one, you can focus on just one Chakra in one session. What you will be doing is to focus on just one Chakra in your body and repeating the Mantras related to its element. Apart from repeating the Seed Mantra of that Chakra, you can also visualize the colour related to that Chakra.

(Thanks to Giovanni Dienstmann from Liveandare for suggesting this method)

While you focus your attention on one particular Chakra, you must repeat one of the main mantras after this method. It will help in balancing any sudden force of energy that may arise within you. Main Mantras are important medium to control the power of Kundalini)

Important things to be kept in mind :

(1)    While repeating the mantras, the instructions as explained here should be kept in view.

(2)    While the main mantra should be repeated contemplating its meaning in your heart, the same will not be possible in the case of seed Mantras as they don’t have any particular meaning. So while reciting them you should focus on their respective chakras.

Correct Pronunciation of Seed Mantras

Watch this video by MC-yogi:

Then this one by Heart Alchemy Yoga

Watching carefully the way in which all the seed mantras have been pronounced in the above two videos. After browsing through numerous videos, I have selected the above two videos as in both of them the seed mantras have been pronounced correctly that is the way they should be pronounced.

Conclusion

This ends my detailed explanation of Chakra Meditation comprising the concept of seven chakras in human body, the three Nadis, the concept of Kundalini, dangers involved in the practice and the safest way to perform Chakra Meditation. I hope all people interested in the Chakra Meditation will like it beneficial for their practice.

Related:

Chakras and Supernatural Powers

Chakras

Root Chakra

The Seven Chakras of the Human Body

Meditation

SculptureGarden

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Karma and Fate

Quote

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Do We Need a Guru?

Hello Everyone!

Moving forward I will respond to email messages that are not of personal nature and that I believe might be of interest to everyone right here.

Question: I think We need a GURU for MEDITATION or YOGA or a MANTRA.
Mere Instructions are not good right? Am I wrong?

Answer: Depends on the person and also on one’s journey.

Let’s say in a classroom there are 50 students. Now each student has a different intellectual capacity. They have the same teacher, but not every student will grasp or understand everything equally and score an A+ in class. Some will have to work harder and will need lot more help and guidance while some will be able to shine with very little involvement of the teacher.

Similarly whether one needs a guru for yoga, pranayama and meditation will depend on the person.  They are in a position to better assess and determine that for themselves.

Someone who is interested in yoga asanas, meditation, pranayama etc as part of a basic healthy living regimen don’t necessarily need a spiritual guru. Any qualified yoga teacher can help them. Then you have the ones who are on a serious spiritual journey and want to further and deepen their knowledge and understanding of the metaphysical or rarer still-are seeking self-realization. In this case you can still learn a lot on your own but you will eventually get to a point where you will thirst for a guru. And finding such a guru is not easy either.

Some people have gurus, but really use them as a crutch to get them through their life’s problems. Seeking words of wisdom is one thing but running to them with every little problem is another.

Regarding mantras: I personally (based on my own experience) believe that if you feel particularly drawn to a mantra you can make it your mantra. Sometimes it can be a mantra that you need in your life at that point in time. Maybe one is facing fear of illness, accident, disease then one chants the Mahamrityunjaya mantra.  If one is looking for wisdom, true knowledge then one might find themselves drawn to the Gayatri mantra. You might have a mantra based on your birth rashi/zodiac.

 

sunriseP

yachnayoga.wordpress.com

 

 

 

Raising your Vibration from Low to High-How to Make the Shift

Bliss and sorrow cannot co-exist. Where there is bliss there is no experience of sorrow. Where there is sorrow, bliss cannot be experienced.Bliss is experienced when you vibrate at the highest frequency. Sorrow, sickness, disease, stress, negativity, pessimism etc. is experienced when you vibrate at a much lower frequency.

If the mind is peaceful and body is relaxed prana will flow freely through the body. When prana flows freely, because there is no resistance within, your vibrational frequency will increase. If you can maintain this uplifted state you will feel positive, happy, forgiving, and grateful. Your face will glow. Body will be free of pain and suffering. You will naturally think fewer and uplifting thoughts and the mind will be peaceful. You will have an overall sense of well-being, peace and positivity without trying to force it.  You will feel drawn to activities, thoughts and people with higher vibration. You will be naturally drawn to healthy fresh foods which is why I don’t want to lecture you on eating healthy or stressing the importance of being around positive people. It will start happening on its own.

Two factors are at the core of increasing one’s vibrational frequency:

  • Think fewer thoughts
  • The few thoughts you have should be positive or neutral

Both can be successfully accomplished through conscious effort and awareness. In order to be positive and to stay positive you have to make a shift.  This shift is not easy because we don’t live in a perfect blissful world where everything is just the way we want it to be. But once you’ve made that positive shift from low to high vibration you won’t be easily dragged down by most everyday lows and stressors. You can make this shift.

The most powerful ways to make that shift and to enjoy lasting results are:

  • Mantra Chanting or Japa: Mantra chanting is very effective if done correctly. If you find it hard to meditate then this might be a great way to get yourself in a meditative state of mind and experience a positive state of mind.

If you don’t feel the emotion of the mantra, chanting it is useless. Each word we understand conjures up an image and a feeling. If I ask you to repeat and focus on these words- fresh sandalwood paste or cool fragrant jasmine flowers you visualize and feel something good. Now chant this all day while doing your chores or while multitasking. You won’t feel anything. You will just mechanically repeat these words.

When I say sapascoffragmine and tell you this is a very powerful and effective mantra so chant it daily. Will you feel anything? There is no image or thought or feeling you can associate with it because you don’t know what it means. (I just made it up by borrowing a few letters from sandalwood paste cool fragrant jasmine  J ).

So when you chant a mantra it is good to know the meaning/significance of each word or at least the gist of it. It is also important to focus on each word and feel it completely which is why the correct way of chanting is to sit down and do it for at least one round of the rosary instead of doing it while driving or doing dishes and laundry, or cooking or whatever mindless chore you are doing. The rosary helps you keep track of how long you have been chanting without distracting you. The more rounds you do the better you will feel. This is why chanting while doing chores is useless, because after repeating a mantra 3-5 times you will get distracted. The whole point of chanting is to improve our focus and concentration; to lessen our thoughts so that our mind is not scattered any more. A scattered mind will make you feel depleted and irritable and negative which can manifest in any form of anger or irritability.

Choosing the mantra: you will either be recommended a mantra (based on your horoscope or a guru depending on what you need at that stage of your life.)

If you pick your own mantra you will tend to be drawn to one based on what you need at that time in your life. Sometimes you will find yourself changing mantras until you find the right one for you. Because you are looking for that which is lacking in you. You are drawn to the vibration of the mantra based on what is missing and very much needed in you at that phase of your life. If you like a certain color it is because you have less of it in you.  That’s when people use color therapy or gemstone therapy, but that’s a topic for another day.

Do at least one round of the rosary. This will come to 108 repetitions. This is just the minimum. But if this is v important to you and you are willing to put in the time and effort for the gains then do at least 3 rounds or 324 repetitions. This will take anywhere between 15 -30 minutes depending on the length of the mantra. The more you do the more you will benefit. Last month I did 10 rounds of a mantra. It took me 2 hours. But after the fifth round I could feel certain sensations and vibrations in my brain. By the end I felt extremely uplifted, strong, positive, confident happy and fearless. I do three rounds daily in the evening and the results are undeniable. I went from feeling a low 2 on the scale to feeling a 10- grounded and positively uplifted; Poised and fearless at the same time.

Withdrawing your senses is a precursor to concentration and concentration is a precursor to meditation. When you chant a mantra (japa) you are withdrawing your senses and working on concentration by focusing on each aspect of the mantra. When you can maintain your concentration it becomes meditation. After several rounds of japa (you will know when) don’t be in a rush to get up. Just sit silently in the moment for a while before you open your eyes and get up.

  • Meditation: 30-45 minutes of regular meditation will help us reduce our thoughts, and uplift and strengthen our mind.  When the ancient seers meditated, it wasn’t to relieve stress.  It was to gain knowledge; Not text book knowledge, but transcendental knowledge. Today meditation is recommended to relieve stress and to uplift the mind. I have shared lots of information on meditation in my previous posts along with their benefits so I will re-post those links for your convenience.

https://yachnayoga.wordpress.com/meditation/,

https://yachnayoga.wordpress.com/2012/03/01/prescription-meditation/

https://yachnayoga.wordpress.com/meditation/meditation-2/

https://yachnayoga.wordpress.com/meditation/i-will-start-meditating-tomorrow/

While meditation or mantra japa will help you make the big shift, the day to day tips below are recommended as an adjunct.

  • When you practice any activity do it with awareness and attention. So if you practice yoga and pranayama, practice with awareness.  Your mind, body and spirit should become one.  If you are mechanically and mindlessly doing the poses but your mind is wandering to all the useless or negative stuff, you won’t get anything out of your session.
  • Spend time in nature.

    DSC_7784

    yachna yoga:Spend time in nature

  • Read a positive and uplifting article or book before bedtime.
  • Watch happy shows that make you laugh. Watch educational/inspiring shows.
  • These days our minds are scattered and agitated most of the time. Cut down multi-tasking. Spend less time on social media. With instant messaging, whatsapp, FB etc our minds are scattered in many different directions. Minimize such distractions. Unfollow certain ‘friends’ so you cannot see their posts and place them on the restricted list so they can’t see your posts. This will distance their orbits from the nucleus of your life.

Quick Fix and most effortless methods to improve your vibration when you are feeling very low. Sometimes you might feel really low on energy and down in spirits and in need of a quick fix in.

  • SMILE-it will help diffuse a lot of that negative energy. Just smile. You might feel silly smiling for no reason and might even say-“How can I smile when I’m not happy?” OR “I’ll smile when things are better.” But trust me –smile and things will be better because you will start feeling better. Don’t argue with yourself against smiling. Don’t say anything. Just smile for no reason. When you wake up in the morning just smile without a reason. Set your morning alarm with this positive reminder to SMILE.
  • MUSIC: Play your favorite upbeat music. No sad tunes. Just something that makes you want to get up and dance.  Notice how it quickly alters your mood to a lighter state.
  • Call a friend: Call a friend and talk to them about everything except what’s weighing you down. By the time you are done with the phone call you will feel so much better. But if you just discuss what’s weighing on your mind (especially if these are just repetitive stale thoughts you recycle daily) then you will only feel worse afterwards. So steer your conversation away from anything that will perpetuate your low vibration state.
  • Shopping: Going shopping/window shopping is definitely a distraction that can help you out of low spirits.
  • Watch a funny show or movie

Tranquility and Equanimity

Lake Bierstadt, Colorado, yachnayoga

Lake Bierstadt, Colorado, yachnayoga

Tranquility can be likened to a still lake, equanimity to a powerful,
unmoving mountain. To call on these two attributes, I (Swami Shankaranda) suggest the following:

1. For tranquility visualize a still, quiet lake and let your mind become
as still as the lake you imagine.

2. For equanimity imagine yourself to be as strong and immovable as
a mountain. Visualize moving through your day with that strength
and certainty.

~ Swami Shankarananda, Happy For No Good Reason

The Transcendent Secret Behind Ordinary Phenomena-The Knowledge of Cosmic Interconnection-Panchagni Vidya-

We see people being born and people dying, but we do not know why people are born and why people die. The causes are unknown to us. What is it that compels a person to be born and what is it that forces him to die? We know very well, we have no say in either of these ways. We cannot say this or that in respect of these processes. Nor is there any adequate knowledge of the secret of one’s own experiences. Birth, death and the experiences in life are apparently effects produced upon us by causes of which we seem to have no knowledge.

Wherever there is ignorance, there is also bondage in respect to that subject or that circumstance. When we have knowledge of a thing, we are not bound to that thing, we have a control over that thing. The greater is the knowledge that we have about anything, the greater also is the capacity we have in making it subservient to our own selves. But, the more is the ignorance we have about a thing, the more are we subservient to its laws. The world binds us; the law of gravitation limits us; the law of Nature restricts us, because we do not have an adequate knowledge of these laws. We do not know how they operate and why it is that we have been made subject to these laws. What is wrong with us? We do not know this, though we know that there is something fundamentally wrong with every one of us, on account of which the whole world keeps us in subjection. We are under the thumb of every law in the world. The reason is that we are apparently outside the realm of the operation of this law. We are like exiles cast out into the winds, and the law set around our necks, as it were, compels us to follow its dictates. We cannot overcome the law of gravitation, to give only one instance. We are slaves of this law. We can fall down and we can break our legs; we can get drowned; we can be burnt; anything can happen to us. Our very life on earth is based on and is decided by that law. But this happens on account of certain patent limitations in our life. There is some sort of a finitude in our own bodies and the entire personality of ours. Our fate is the same in respect of any law that operates anywhere. We cannot think things which are not purely sensory or physical; we cannot visualize things which are super-physical; we cannot understand any aspect of reality which is not in space, which is not in time and which is not causally related. And outside the realm of our own organic personality, we cannot have a real knowledge. We are finites, we are bound, we are limited in every way.

chaandogya

The processes of birth and death, again, are to be explained from this point of view. There is some law which works in some peculiar manner on account of which we are compelled to follow this course known as transmigration. Is anyone prepared to die? But we have no say in the matter. We will die one day or the other. But why should we die? Who tells you that you must die? No one knows this. And if somebody is born, well, it is doubtful if anyone is born due to the personal wish of anyone. There is some force working behind. So is the case with every kind of experience through which we pass. We do not know what will happen to us tomorrow. So much is our ignorance, so that it appears that we are utterly humiliated beings, shamefaced in every way, ignorant to the core and completely subject to the law of forces of which we have absolutely no knowledge.

You know people are born; you know people die. This much of knowledge we do have. And, perhaps, we have also a knowledge that certain actions that we perform are responsible for our births and deaths and our experiences in life. The good that we do brings good experiences, the pleasant ones; and the bad ones produce contrary results. This much of information we have gathered by study, hearing etc. But this is not the knowledge that will liberate us.

We are so ignorant that we think that the child is born from the womb of the mother. We know only that much, but this is the least type of knowledge that one can have about the birth of a child. The child is not pushed out of the womb of the mother, as if by magic. It is a tremendous process that takes place throughout the cosmos. All the officials of the government of the universe are active in the production of a single child’s career. The whole universe vibrates with action even if a single baby is to be born somewhere in the corner of a house. It is not a private phenomenon of a little child coming out unknown somewhere in a nook and corner of the world, as people ignorantly behold or believe. The whole universe feels the presence and the birth of a single child anywhere. So what produces a child is not the father or the mother. It is the whole cosmos that produces the child. The universe is the parent of this little baby. It may be a human baby, a subhuman one or a superhuman form. Whatever be the character of that child, even if it may be an inorganic production, an atom, or an electron, or the composition of a molecule, the birth of it is regarded as the birth of a child, and it is made possible by the operation of cosmic factors. The whole universe is our father; the entire universe is our mother; the universe is the parent. That is the cause, and even if a little liquid is jetted from a pore we would realize that, ultimately, it has some connection with the universal cause of all causes, by a chain of relations.

The Upanishad tells us this secret of cosmic interconnectedness and involution of factors which are unknown to the senses and unthinkable to the mind. There is no such thing as a private act in this world. There is also no such thing as ‘my’ child and ‘your’ child. If this secret is known, no one will say, “It is my son, my daughter.” It is neither yours nor anybody’s. It belongs to that from where it has come. And from where has it come? It has come from every cell of the universe. It has not come from the seminal essence of the father or the mother, as it is believed. It is the quintessence of every particle of the whole of Nature, so that the cosmos is reflected in every body. That is why we say +the macrocosm is in the microcosm. The cosmos is reverberating and is reflected in the little baby. How, then, can you say that it is your child? It is the child of the universe, which is to take care of it; and it shall withdraw it when it is to be summoned back; it projects it when it is to be sent out for reasons which are known to the universal law alone. Here is the philosophical background of the vidya, called Panchagni-Vidya.  The cause of a particular event which is ordinarily regarded as normal, physical, personal, social, visible, tangible, etc., this particular thing, has a transcendent secret behind it. This is the great point made out in the Panchagni-Vidya.

There is a light that shines beyond all things on earth, Beyond us all, beyond the heavens, beyond the highest, the very highest heavens. This is the light that shines in our hearts — Chandogya Upanishad

There is a light that shines beyond all things on earth,
Beyond us all, beyond the heavens, beyond the highest, the very highest heavens.
This is the light that shines in our hearts — Chandogya Upanishad

The birth of a human being in this world does not take place in this world alone, exclusively. It takes place in the highest regions first. One is born first in the higher levels in certain degrees of expression, and the impact of this birth is felt in the lower levels until it becomes visible to the physical eye on this mortal earth. Then we say that a child is born, someone has come, and there is a rebirth, and so on. But this someone has not come suddenly from the skies. There has been a complicated interior process preceding, which always manages to escape the notice of ordinary vision. This is the case not only with the birth of a human being, but it is so with the coming of every event in the world. The Panchagni-Vidya is not an elucidation of a single phenomenon merely, namely, the organic birth of a human individual in the mother’s womb. This is only an instance which is to be extended to phenomena of every kind comprehended in the whole of Nature. There is a total activity, in a subtle form, taking place prior to the apparently individual expression of it in the form of experience and perception.

There is a cycle, as it were, a wheel rotating in the form of give-and-take between the gods in the heaven and the human beings here. We give something and we are given back something. Nature gives us what we give to it in the form of our own deeds in this world. We do not get what we do not deserve, and we cannot get, also, what we have not given actually. What we have given, what we have deserved, what we have parted with in the form of a sacrifice, that is given back to us, with compound interest sometimes, according to the law of Nature. Unless there is a harmonious give-and-take understanding between us and Nature, Nature will not give anything to us. If we are too greedy, miserly and selfish, well, everything will be withheld from us. The earth will withdraw her forces. And in the ‘Puranas’ we are told that the earth, which is compared to a sacred cow, withdraws her milk and does not allow men to drink a drop of the milk of her giving, when they are so selfish, self-centered and absolutely averse to the virtue of giving or sharing with others. It is then that we notice an adverse action in the field of Nature. And then there is drought; there is poverty; there is catastrophe; sometimes there can be cataclysm also, as the case may be.

Causes and causes, perhaps thousands and thousands in number, have joined together through the various levels of birth chandogyamanifestation for the birth of this child, all of which is not known to this child. It knows nothing except the little locality where it is born, and all other aspects of its birth in this particular world are forgotten at one stroke due to the association of consciousness with the body in a much intensified manner. The intensity with which the consciousness gets tied up to the body is such that there is a complete obliteration of the memory of past lives, a total ignorance of everything that happened in the earlier incarnations, and there is an attachment to this particular body only, as if that is the only reality—as if there was nothing before, and there is nothing going to be in the future also! The entire chain is forgotten. Only a single link is caught hold of, and consciousness is bound hard to this particular link, and this is the earthly, the physical life of the individual.

When the span of life is finished, there is what we call the death of the body, the extrication of the prana (life force) from the individual embodiment. And these Fires take the individual to the destination to which it is bound after death. 

upanishads3The Five Fires, called the Panchagnis, mentioned here, are not actually fires in the physical sense. They are meditational techniques. The Upanishad here tells us that the whole universal activity of creation may be conceived as such a kind of sacrifice—yajna.  unless we have a practical living knowledge of the various factors that are involved in the process of manifestation, or creation, we cannot be free from the law of manifestation. Births and deaths are parts of the universal process. What we call the universal process of manifestation is inclusive of every event that takes place anywhere, in any manner, including the experiences through which we are passing here in life. The point that the Upanishad would make out is that no event or no experience can be isolated from other experiences. It is a continuity throughout from beginning to end, and births and deaths and other phenomenal experiences are not isolated factors. They are connected to ultimate causes. If we can contemplate the internal connection that obtains between the effects that are visible with the causes that are invisible, then we would be free from the clutches, or the harassments, of these laws which are operating outside us. Things are not what they seem; there is a deeper significance behind every visible process or activity in Nature. Events take place first in the highest heaven, and then their presence is felt gradually in greater and greater density as they come down to the level of more and more grossness and perceptibility and tangibility, as is the case with a disease. The illness does not manifest itself suddenly in the physical body. It happens inside first. Its seed is sown within. There is some kind of event that is taking place in the depths of our personality, and in the recesses of the world. This impulse is manifest outside as some occurrence.

The cause of a particular event which is ordinarily regarded as normal, physical, personal, social, visible, tangible, etc., this particular thing, has a transcendent secret behind it. This is the great point made out in the Panchagni-Vidya.

EXCERPTS: COMMENTARY BY SWAMI KRISHNANADA, DIVINE LIFE SOCIETY ON CHAANDOGYA UPANISHAD

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